Contrary to popular beliefs, the Canadian government, does not publicly acknowledge that the Aboriginal peoples were the original inhabitants and legal owners of this country ( Absent-minded and often racist references to this fact in brochures are patronizing and do not constitute real recognition. ) and are conducting an on-going campaign of genocide through assimilation toward the entire aboriginal population.
Canadian history clearly illustrates that Canada today might have a very different geographic configuration, if indeed it would have existed at all, had it not been for the crucial role played by its Aboriginal people. ( In fact ! Canada would have been annexed by the U.S.A. if not for the military role played by the aboriginal population on at least two occasions.)
People of Aboriginal origin originally held title and enjoyed the rights of use and possession over the total area of what is now Canada as a sovereign nation. This fact was recognized from an Aboriginal perspective culminating with the Royal Proclamation of 1763; and preceding treaties between three British Government and the Sovereign Aboriginal nation. which, in turn, provided the basis for subsequent treaties and other means of extinguishing Aboriginal land title.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was the beginning of an ongoing effort to eliminate the entire aboriginal population from their lands titles, titles to resources and rights as a people. ( The very process was outright genocidal in nature from day-one, has changed methology over the centuries, although it still remains in effect today throughout Canada ! )
This process was not accomplished entirely without military conflict, but the conflict in Canada was minimal compared to the costly wars of racial extermination that were fought in the USA .( In the USA, the greater population of foreign invaders allowed for their genocidal pollicies to be more military in nature, whereas, in Canada, due to the smaller numbers and greater land mass, the genocide was more of a political process of assimilation . )
Although, on the surface, it appears the Aboriginal people in Canada, for the most part, cooperated peacefully as allies and partners in the business of founding the Canadian nation and expected in return, that treaty promises which had to do with their lands and cultural and economic survival would be kept, the reality of the situation is one of assimilation, apartheid, ethnic cleansing, human rights infractions, racism, and oppression by successive government for over the last 350-years of Canadian history. .( Although it is still not too late to honor these promises, the present situation appears to lean toward more stalling, wrangling and diversions by the Canadian government without a solid platform to resolve these treaties on the basis of two sovereign nations engaging as equals in the ratification process..)
As exploited allies, Aboriginal Nations also played a central role in historical events leading to the formation and confederation of Canada.(the earliest exploitation of the Aboriginal military was in Quebec which was regarded as a British Franco-Indian province in deference to the major groups shaping its destiny in the 1700's, and. during the wars with the USA for the annexation of Canada, it was the use of Indian forces that held the balance of power in Canada and had a critical part to play in protecting their country's borders from persistent encroachments from the South. )
Later,the so-called Metis-Indians of the Northwest
formed a Provisional Government under the Leadership Louis Riel in 1869
and laid the foundation for the creation of The Province of Manitoba and
its subsequent entry into Confederation. It was these same Metis-Indians
who insisted on federation with Canada and resisted new American annexation
policies.( and then had all their rights stolen from them . ) * It
must be pointed-out that the term " Metis" was and still is a derogatory
racist label attached to a group of non-conformist Aboriginals to separate
them from the general Aboriginal population in order to divide and conquer
! ( In Manitoba, the peaceful complacent Aboriginal who allowed
exploitation of their land, treaty rights and human rights, were labeled
" Indians", while the other segment of the Aboriginal population who resisted
this genocidal process were labeled as " Metis" .)
However, both these situations verify the fact that , if not for the blood spilled on the battlefields by the Aboriginal military forces as allies of the British government in their battle to fight American annexation, Canada would not exist today, being simply a part of the U.S.A. . This is a fact that is rarely mentioned in the Canadian history books, rarely emphacised in the educational system, and NEVER celebrated as part of the history of Canada
Soon afterwards, the British came for the same reasons and they too ! engaged in slavery as well as acts of exploitation of the First nations.because they quickly realized that these First Nations peoles were far too compassionate to resist exploitation of their land and resources.
When the various First Nations finally resisted his onslaught, their numbers in the Americas had been reduced from over 100-million, to less than 12 million, through slavery, epidemics, diseases, and outright slaughter , yet, they proved to be a worthy adversary in war, and quickly began to turn the tide in battle until the French and British decided it was best to have them as allies instead of enemies, so, several efforts by both sides were initiated to win them-over.
One of the most successful tactics was he signing of convenient treaties of peace and friendship.which were often ignored once the military might was established from which resistance by the First Nations was futile. However, since treaties can only be signed by two sovereign nations, it holds that, under international law, it takes the cooperation by both signing parties to nullify or ratify/ change these treaties ( something that has yet to be done .)
In the USA, the solution to this treaty issue was simple : Slaughter their source of food ( the buffalo on the plains ) and they would die of starvation, or kill them outright through " justified " massacres in the name of colonization. Either one worked because the end result was "dead Indians" could never contest their treaty rights, so we had millions of "Indians" slaughtered in the name of exploration and exploitation.
In Canada, due to the small population and greater land mass, this as not always possible, so, another plan was devised to prevent Firtst Nations peoples from accessing their inherent treaty ( and human ) rights ! This process involved the use of Church and State to impose a drastic systematic process of genocide through assimilation, where there was the death of an established culture and it's people with minimal bloodshed .
This process began right after the great expulsion of the Acadians ( late 1700's ) where the British had accessed military might over the First Nations population, and had first categorized them into three groups : Tribal Indians ( living in bands ) Free Indians ( living as nomads ) and Civilized Indians ( servants to white masters in the urban sectors ! )
To eliminate the nomads, they merely over-harvested the Oceans and Woodland, until it was impossible for them to survive, forcing them to join these settled bands or tribes, or join the urban Indians .
They then allotted very specific land areas to the tribal Indians ( the basis of the current reserve system ) and here they used the Church to help rob them of their culture ( language, spirituality and lifestyles ), creating a robotic sub human who was dependant on the government for everything needed to survive. ( Their children were taken to Christian enclaves where they were abused and robbed of their identity as a people )
Then, they created a stereotype of the reserve Indian that portrayed them as violent, lazy, alcoholic, drug abusers, prone to family violence, which made it next to impossible for any of them to join mainstream society . (They were outcasts in their own land.)
There was a problem with the Urban Indians however ! they sometimes had access to education, and this was dangerous because with education, came the realization of their stolen treaty and human rights, so, the government started to sweeten the pot for reserve Indians in hopes of luring these urban Indians back to the life of dependency and control !
They started to offer more housing, job training, and other incentives for the reserve Indians, although, they knew that if they paid a good salary to their leaders, control over the rest of the band was possible , and eventually, they financially supported national Indian groups over which they enjoyed control through high salaries to it's leadership .
Currently there are several " National Indian Groups " whose leaders receive between $80,000 to $ 130,000 a year from the federal government, but, none specifically represent the real needs of the Urban ( off-reserve ) Indians, although, the Urban Indians ( First Nations Peoples ) make-up 60 to 70% of the Indian Population in Canada today .
When you look at the true history of the Indians in Canada, you see human rights infractions that, if carried-out toward citizens of any 3rd world countries, would result in military action by the United Nations toward their governments, but, because Canada is one of the select few who do whatever they chose without retaliation or even comdemnation from the UN, the assimilation goes on !
The origin of the Metis-Indians Nation is rooted in the historical fabric of Canada. *It was not in the Canadian Northwest that they evolved into a new and distinct Aboriginal Nation as the Prairie Metis-Indians from central Canada have been trying to pass-off as fact for decades ! .* Although it is true that the mixed-blood offspring of French fur traders from the North West Company or Scottish and English fur traders from the Hudson's Bay Company and Cree, Ojibway or Saulteaux women formed an ever-increasing proportion of the fur trade population on the westward migration, the actual beginning or birth of the Metis-Indian peoples began in Newfoundland in the 1600's with the marriages between Eastern Woodland or Algonquin Indian women and French settlers, explorers and traders , then moved westward through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, then to Quebec, Ontario before reaching the prairie provinces.
This inter-racial cultural evolution commenced in the mid 1600's and reached its height in the late 1800's.( but, it began in the eastern Canadian provinces first, then, and only then, it expanded along with the fur trade to the central and western parts of Canada ) , the very first recorded use of the term " Metis" occurred in the Saint John River Valley of western New Brunswick to refer to an island inhabited by a Maliseet Indian community which included a number of mixed-breeds . ( The word " Metis" comes from the French word " Metissage" which means to mix or combine )
With their mixed traditions and command of both European and Indian languages, the Metis-Indians were logical intermediaries in the commercial relationship between two civilizations. They adapted European technology to the wilderness, through innovations such as the birchbark canoe, the wigwam, portage, Red River cart, etc. making it possible survive the wilderness and to transport large volumes of goods and supplies to and from the far flung outposts of the fur trade.
As people of mixed ancestry increased in number and married amongst themselves, they developed a new Aboriginal culture, neither European nor Indian, but a fusion of the two and a new tribal identity. ( each separate Metis-Indian tribe developed it's own language and lifestyle, based on the particular Indian heritage they inherited from their ancestors.)
Sadly, by 1770, the Eastern Metis-Indian from the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and New Found Land were firmly involved in the process that would lead to the complete assimilation of their peoples which would last for over 250-years !. What was unusual is that the catalyst for this process came from a surprising source - the Catholic Church !
Although it is well-documented that by the mid 19th century, Metis-Indian villages had appeared in and around fur trade posts from the Great Lakes to the Mackenzie Delta. Then, as now, Metis communities shared a common outlook shaped by their historical circumstances, what is not documented is the plight of the Eastern Canadian Metis-Indian which led to a genocidal assimilation that has never been equaled in the entire history of the Aboriginal in America .
Few historical records exists which cover the history of the Eastern Woodland Metis-Indians, their culture, heritage and the events leading-up to their complete assimilation . In fact, all documentation on the Metis Indians in Canada are completely void of any reference to the Eastern Woodland Metis Indian Nation.
If you believed what was written or documented about the Metis-Indians in Canada, you would assume that the following was the whole story : As provisions to the North West Company, the Metis Indians of the prairies organized the commercial buffalo hunt. They left their permanent settlements periodically, electing a provisional government for each expedition to make and enforce the law of the hunt. This activity increased the political consciousness of the Metis and was further heightened by the rivalry between the fur trade companies. In 1811, the Hudson's Bay company made a land grant to Lord Selkirk of 116,000 square miles of land in the Red River Valley (southern Manitoba) for an agricultural settlement and source of provisions for the fur trade. Efforts by the Scottish settlers to restrict Metis hunting and trading practices eventually led to their defeat in 1816 at the Battle of Seven Oaks where the victorious Metis led by Cuthbert Grant, Jr. first unfurled the flag of the Metis Nation. In 1821, the amalgamation of the Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company closed many fur trade posts and forced their employees and families to move to the Red River Settlement. Here the Scottish Metis joined with French Metis to defend common interests against the governing Hudson's Bay Company. As the Metis became more concentrated and endogamous, group consciousness grew. The Hudson's Bay Company authorities took this sentiment into account in its administration of the Red River Settlement. They had no choice but to recognize the land holding system of the Metis, where Metis parishes were divided into long narrow river lots as in Quebec, and the Metis tradition of settling these lots without formal legal title. By challenging the Hudson's Bay Company monopoly in the trading of furs, Metis free traders and merchants became the most articulate proponents of a growing Metis nationalism. In 1845, they petitioned the Governor of the Red River Settlement for a recognition of their special status. In 1849, they led an armed body of Metis horsemen who surrounded a court house where Guillaume Sayer was being convicted for trafficking in furs, prompting his release without sentence and a declaration of free trade ("La Commerce est libre") by the Metis. By 1869 the population of the Red River Settlement-one of the largest west of the Mississippi and north of the Missouri on the plains of North America-consisted of 5,720 francophone Metis, 4,080 anglophone Metis and 1,600 non-Aboriginals
However, there is much more to this story that the preceeding rosy picture painted here ! ( although these paragraphs are part of the history of the Metis-Indians in Canada ), what is sadly missing is the story of the Eastern Woodland Metis Indians, which is as follows :
Firstly, the very first Metis-Indians in Canada originated on the east coast, not in Ontario, or the Prairies some might want you to think.
What is not widely known is that they were the first to develop a new Aboriginal language ( long before Prairie Mischif was developed ) and that it had several different dialects . (Mi'kmaq -Chiac, Maliseet-Chiac, etc.) with two or more variations of each of these dialects based on their European heritage .
The very first Metis-Indians chosen as the chief of an Aboriginal tribe were from the Eastern Woodland Metis-Indian communities of Atlantic Canada .( The exact number is uncertain, but it is known that Metis-Indians were highly respected among the Indian communities throughout the period leading-up to the great expulsion ), many Reserve Chiefs today are in-fact Metis Indians .
The very first Metis-Indian freedom fighter was not Louis Riel, but Joseph Brossard, and Joe LeBeuf from the Memremcook/ Monkton/ The Bend region of New Brunswick, who were also the very first Metis-Indian freedom fighters to be arrested for treason ( 100- years before Louis Riel suffered the same fate ! )
The Eastern Woodland Metis Indians were the first North American residents to be sold into slavery ! ( Those under Prince William ) again, long before other Native American or African Americans suffered the same fate .( This is also absent from all history books )
The very first practice of paying a cash bounty for human scalps was directed toward the Eastern Woodland Metis Indians and their Mi'kmaq allies in 1755, 1756, 1757 and 1758 ! ( This barbaric practice of terrorism was so successful, that is was adopted by the American military in their ethnic cleansing of the Indian population as part of their westward colonization .)
The Eastern Woodland Metis-Indians are the only aboriginal who were part the great deportation of the Acadians .It is unknown how many were placed aboard British ships and sent to the 13 colonies, how many were separated from their wives and family, how many died on board and were dumped into the sea without dignity or respect or fought their way back to their homeland.( all we know is that many Metis-Indians were unwilling victims of the great expulsion and their names are recorded in the ship's logs and government documents.)
The Eastern Woodland Metis-Indians faced a heart-wrenching decision in 1780 ! Renounce their Metis-Indian identity or suffer the consequences which included the continued persecution of their relatives in both the Acadian and Indian communities from both the government and the Catholic church . ( already, the very existence of the Catholic church in the British/ Anglican controlled new world, hinged upon it's ability to control it's Acadian and Indian congregations, this meant a systematic effort to assist the government in controlling the military resistance that began with the expulsion and continued to this point in history )
This meant, that the Catholic church would use stereotyping of anything/ anyone Aboriginal as negative and to be avoided by the Acadian population ( This conditioning was so powerful, that all visible traces of Aboriginal ancestry was carefully hidden from the recorded archives in the church registries for over 200-years ! )
The Metis-Indians were no longer welcomed in the British territory . They had engaged in a fierce gorilla war with the British because their families had been deported and attacked, a war that included acts of barbarism from both sides. And, along with the British attitude that all the Indian peoples were one group, their mortal enemy, which must be eliminated at all costs, they were a hindrance to the continued growth of the Catholic Church.
Another factor involved in this decision to get rid of the Metis-Indians was that the war in Europe between the French and British was now-over ! There was no longer any need to try and appease the Indian populations in hopes of their becoming allies in the war over the colonization of Canada, instead, it was time to steal their territory and it's resources, and by this time, the Metis-Indians had achieved positions of power within the Indian communities which included the higher education they had received from their European relatives, making them "natural" leaders , which would no longer pose a threat if they could be assimilated into the more peaceful Acadian communities..
The choice for the Metis-Indians was simple : Either join the Acadian population as a regular citizen under British law, or rejoin the Native American or Indian population, still under the same British control and oppression, either-way, their Metis-Indian identity must be erased and they would be assimilated, or they could join other Metis-Indians in the fur trade's westward trek .( either-way ! This meant the complete assimilation of the eastern Woodland Metis-Indian peoples.).
By the 1800's, there were no Metis-Indians left in the public eye in Eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island . It is as though, they simply vanished from the face of the earth they called home .
They had been assimilated into either
the Acadian Population or joined the Indian communities and remained hidden
there until 1988, when the very first modern - day
" Metis-Indian " was registered and identified as such
.( Only in Labrador, were there registered Metis-Indian in
Eastern Canada , it is obvious they existed on paper as a way to eliminate
one segment of the general Inuit Population from the rest for political
reason, since they were left out of all meaningful Aboriginal treaty
negotiations and involvement's )
Genocide and Assimilation
Genocide is the wholesale killing of a people and is seen as a deliberate strategy by one group of people to wipe out another. When European Nations began their colonial ventures (different time and methodology to their exploration activities), this was a concept which justified gaining title by conquest. As their citizens began to protest the slaughters in Africa in the mid-1880's and the cruelties inflicted on the Aboriginal peoples, these Nations' governments had to find some other way to achieve the same goal.
Ethnic Cleansing is the process, through murder or assimilation , of eliminating a segment of the population based on race or ethnic origins. We have seen hundreds, maybe thousands, of cases of " Ethnic Cleansing " directed toward parts of the Aboriginal Nations throughout both North and South American history : The great " Indian" battles were actually simple government executions cleverly justified by fabricated acts of aggression by the Indian population toward the settlers who were trying to steal their and and resources.
Assimilation is the practice of forcing an individual to stop being who he/she is and to become someone else. This is a process that must be developed over time and done in such a way that "Aboriginal" remains intact, but is a reflection of someone else in the final phase.
In this way, a government could say to its citizens, "See we are humanitarian, we practice equality and we have the Aboriginal's best interests at heart"; while in reality they have ripped a peoples' spirit apart leaving them physically intact. The first legislation for Indians in Canada came about in 1850 because of land-hungry settlers and from then on two opposing purposes were used to solve this:
1. Protection of Aboriginals and their land, and
2. The assimilation of Aboriginals.
In 1850 two Acts for Indians existed: one in Upper Canada and one in Lower Canada. It was the 1850 Statute for Lower Canada where the first legal definition of "Indian" was used:
* all persons of Indian blood;
* all persons intermarried with any such Indians residing amongst them;
* all children of mixed marriages residing amongst Indians;
* persons adopted in infancy by any such Indians.
In 1870 another Act raised assimilation. This Act was called An Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of the Indian Tribes in the Province and to Amend the Laws Respecting Indians. This Act set up a procedure for male Indians to "enfranchise", that is, renounce Indian status and become like other citizens of the province-"if they were found to deserve such encouragement". Inducements offered were land and a lump sum payment of a share of monies from Treaties and band funds. Assimilation was now entrenched.
What exactly was the assimilation process?
First, the erosion of self-reliance through taking of the land.
Next was an attack on the physical power and health of the people through disease, alcohol and starvation.
Then came the attack on the people's spirit through religion and stereotyping.
It progressed to an attack on our intellectual capacity through education.
The law was then used to legalize these processes and respect for this law was obtained through police participation.
Once weakening the people, our leaders and governing institutions were ignored and isolated.
It wasn't enough that our Nations were being decimated from within, then came the strategy of divide in order to conquer.
Spiritual practices were outlawed, children were kept separated, then finally the attack began on the heart of our culture = "the women"
In the case of Metis-Indian women, this process was accomplished during colonization and ostracizing Metis-Indian women - who up until the "White" women arrived were a necessity for trade, sustenance and in many cases survival.
Changes to the Indian Act in 1869 allowing bands to enfranchise Indian women who married out (creating the process for defining "Indian" and legitimacy through descent of the male line only), the Battle of Batoche and the Scrip process begun in 1871 in Treaty #1 saw the Metis Indian Nation being directly attacked by the Federal government.
This was the beginning of the Metis
Indians Nation being "enfranchised" from the Indian Act and beginning the
process that resulted in Metis Indian People seeing themselves as The Forgotten
People of Canada. It wasn't until 1982 that the Metis Indian
Nation was once against recognized as an Aboriginal People of Canada; However
the damage was done and the effective entrenchment of divide and conquer
is the largest hurdle in these modern times.
The problem is best explained by using the following : "If I steal your car, then you take me to court, only to find-out I am both the judge and jury, can you really expect to get back your car ?"
These treaties are under International Law ! They can only be re-negotiated in International courts of Law ! To try to resolve them through the justice system of one of these Sovereign Nations who signed them is biased and contrary to the democratic process
As First Nations, we can only expect to find a just solution to these treaties if we are permitted to bring them before the World Court ! But, if we allow International protocol to be bypassed by the Canadian government, where they rule on these treaties through their own justice system without input from us, the other sovereign nation who co-signed these treaties, we will be sure of having our treaty rights stolen from us.
There are only two logical solutions to this problem :
1...Canada agrees to bring this matter up at the United Nations to be resolved under International law
2...Canada declares a state of
war against the First Nations over these treaty rights .
If they bring it to the U.N., we will win, and if they declare war toward us, we will still win, either-way, we will win .( our three million First Nations Peoples or 10% of the Canadian populations is the same percentage as Blacks hold in the USA, and who, as anyone knows, have risen from 2nd class enslaved citizens to the forfront of mainstream society even though they were also slaves as we were and they too, had all their rights stolen from them by a similar government ! )
The Manitoba Metis ( who believe they are a nation unto themselves) think they hold a recognized Aboriginal title to their lands, which was never extinguished. Legislative measures taken by the Federal and Provincial governments have not diminished or substantiated the legitimacy of the Metis' claim to land.
The Metis of Manitoba have chosen litigation to seek a long deferred settlement of their land rights. The preference, however, would be to find a political solution to the issues, one that would take into account contemporary realities and provide for reparations in the form of land and cash settlements
As matters stood in 1989, the Province was willing to let the courts resolve the Manitoba Metis claim, on the assumption that the major liability will be assigned to the Federal Government. The Federal Government, on the other hand, has exerted every effort to block a litigation process and so far has resisted negotiations.
In Saskatchewan, the Province recently transferred several thousand acres of land called "Metis Farms" to community-based Metis authorities-with the provision that the land be turned over to individual Metis families in "fee simple" in ten years (1998). The Province's rationale for the land concessions is that it is in the economic interest of those Metis concerned and not a settlement of a statutory right to land.
If this is the truth, then, maybe the meager land hand-out offered with the Manitoba Land Claim process began in the 1800's with script is good enough for them,
But the Eastern woodland Metis-Indian aren't going to accept such a deal since we noticed that the Federal Government provided Metis claims research monies between 1976 and 1978, but no further action has been taken since that time to deal with the issue as a statutory right of the majority of the so-called Metis peoples. Federal authorities in the past have vacillated between offering an acknowledgment of the historical and legal basis for Metis claims, and dredging up various technicalities to postpone the inevitable day when proper dues have to be paid.
Such a day may not be far off if the case now before the courts re-affirm the validity of Metis claims but I wouldn't hold my breath waiting for a positive response from the same Federal Government that created the model of racial ghettos ( The Indian reserves) adopted by the government of South Africa to create their own successful apartheid racist policy..
Our position is that we see through this whole Metis" charade ! The entire scheme was devised by the federal government in order to separate one or more of our " tribes" or bands of Indians ( as stipulated in the official definition of Indian status through the first recorded Indian act * 1850) from the rest in order to cheat them out of their land !
The Manitoba ( West Coast ) Metis peoples ( with an "s") should step-back and look at the entire issue of their being a separate " Nation" set apart from the Indian Nation, because, like it or not, the only treaties ever signed between the Aboriginal and government overseeing Canadian lands and resources were between " INDIANS " and the British government, not some segment of the Nation of Indians living in Canada who are brainwashed into thinking they in some magical way, appeared out of nowhere and are a new race deserving of special treatment .
It is much more prudent (actually more" intelligent " ) for all so-called " Metis" to open their eyes to reality ! We are all INDIAN as disclosed by the highest court in this land of 1850 ! Not " half breeds" , " mixed-bloods", or Metis peoples ! but legal " Indians ", the same legal Indians who are protected under all treaties between the various governments and our leaders prior to 1763 .( if you want to draw attention to the fact that your group of Indians have a sprinkling of European DNA in your genes, which gives your a slightly different mentality or insight into your culture, spirituality or even lifestyle, that is O.K.! just remember that your dominant DNA is Indian or more precisely the Native American Aboriginal whose ancestors signed all the treaties before 1773 when we were a sovereign nation in their eyes, instead of the pathetic oppressed slaves who line-up to get our daily allotment of welfare checks and meager handouts like beggars on the street-corner . )
On the East Coast, a new Tribe was established which is called the Nation ( because they are part of the Eastern Woodland First Nations ) of Acadian ( Because their ancestors resided in what was once Acadia ), Metis ( meaning a mixture ) Indians ( meaning that this DNA mixture is of several Eastern Woodland First Nation Peoples. )
This Nation is a mixture of several eastern woodland tribes which includes the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, Abenaki, Penobscot, Huron, Mohawk, Monteainais and Cree .As such, it has a slightly different structure, culture and lifestyle than any one of these tribes, although it identifies with each one in one way or another .
It is represented by the Canadian Off-Reserve First Nations, Inc.because it is made-up of Off-Reserve First Nations Peoples and it has it's own representitives who are on the Council Of Grand Chiefs for this non-profit corporation .